The First Block Of TCG Anadolu Is Laid

The first block of TCG Anadolu laid on the slipway. Photo: Navantia

The first keel block of TCG Anadolu was laid on 7th February 2018, nine 21 months after the construction has started.

The contract for the construction of the ship was signed in May 2015 after a four year long tender process.

The delivery of the ship is scheduled for the year 2021.

TCG Anadolu is based on Navatia’s Juan Carlos 1 design. She will be very similar to SPS Juan Carlos 1 in Spanish Navy and HMAS Adelaide and HMAS Canberra in Royal Australian Navy.

However, unlike her nears sisters in Spanish and Australian navies, the Turkish ship will only have diesel engines. There will be five MAN 16V32/40 engines each creating 7.680kW and propelling the ship up to 21 knots. The range is estimated to be 9.000 nautical miles.

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The Construction Of The Multipurpose Amphibious Assault Ship TCG Anadolu Has Started

L-408 TCG Anadolu.

The model of TCG Anadolu taken during the IDEF 2015 defence exibition.

The construction of the multipurpose amphibious assault ship L-408 TCG Anadolu has started on 30th April 2016.

The ship is based on Navatia’s Juan Carlos 1 design. TCG Anadolu will be similar to SPS Juan Carlos 1 in Spanish Navy and HMAS Adelaide and HMAS Canberra in Royal Australian Navy.

During the ceremony President of Turkish Republic Recep Tayyip Erdoğan made a speech.  During his speech he stated that TCG Anadolu will be the first ship in Turkish Navy from which F-35B SVTOL planes will operate. This is the first time official declaration of the long known desire of Turkey to operate fixed wing planes from her ships. This statement also made it clear that Turkey will procure F-35B planes along with her order of F-35A planes.

In his speech Mr. Erdoğan also asked the announced delivery time of 5,5 years to be shortened to 4 years and stated that if TCG Anadolu can be delivered in 4 years, more ships –though not clearly stating which class- will be ordered.

Unlike her nears sisters in Spanish and Australian navies the Turkish ship will only have diesel engines. There will be five MAN 16V32/40 engines each creating 7.680kW and propelling the ship up to 21 knots. The range is estimated to be 9.000 nautical miles.

The ship will have one Mk-49 launcher for Rolling Airframe Missile, 2 Mk-15 Phalanx Block 1B CIWS, 5 Stabilized Gun platforms probably armed with 25mm gun for self-defence.

The ship will carry 6 F-35B Lightning II planes 4 T-129 ATAK attack helicopters 8 cargo helicopters 2 S-70B Seahawk helicopters and 2 UAVs.

The contract for this project was signed on 7 May 2015 during the IDEF 2015. The delivery scheduled for 2021 but this may be shortened.

When completed she will be the largest warship of Turkish Navy. Being the capital ship she will be the apple of the Turkish Navy. At the same the she will be the most wanted target for other navies. It is about time that other ship building projects especially about ships that will escort and protect TCG Anadolu must start. As an example, the two other navies operating similar ships have initiated AEGIS based air defence destroyers -not to anyones surprise designed in Spain- to escort their amphibious assault ships.

Turkish Navy has long been working on TF-2000 air defence destroyer program. According to preliminary plans the ship will be about 150 meters long and will have displacement between 7.000 and 8.000 tons. Her primary sensor and weapon systems are yet to be determined. Turkish defence electronics company ASELSAN is developing a phased array radar system to be used by the navy.

Large capital ships like TCG Anadolu never sail alone. They are always dispatched with a number of escorts whose main mission is to protect the capital ship no matter what the cost. The ability of current frigates of Turkish Navy which will be tasked with the protection of TCG Anadolu when she is completed may not be sufficient to counter all the treats they will face in the near  future. Therefore more advanced ships with complex sensor systemns and long range missiles are needed. And this need is getting urgent with every passing day.

P1150564

Technical specifications of TCG Anadolu.

Turkish LPD Project Reached Important Milestone

Levent2 LeventIt has been told that with the first payment by Turkey, the contract of th LPD project come into effect.

The contract was signed on 7 May 2015 during the IDEF 2015.  According to Jane’s Naval International, with receipt of the first payment, construction work on the ship is scheduled to begin one year from now, with delivery scheduled for 2021.

 

The Contract For LPD Construction Has Been Signed

Levent2

The model of the future Turkish LPD.

Levent

The model of the future Turkish LPD.

The contract signing ceremony for the LPD was the highlight of the IDEF 2015 was from the maritime point of view the.

On 7 May 2015 the contract for the production of one landing platform dock, was signed between Under-secretariat for Defence Industries and Sedef Shipyard.

The design is based on Spanish shipyard Navantia’s Juan Carlos 1 LPD and will be very similar to the Spanish and Australian ships. According to Under-secretariat for Defence Industries press release the ship is scheduled to be commissioned in 2021. The ship will be able to operate 60 days on sea, without replenishment.

The preliminary specifications of the Turkish LPD shows that the ship will not much different from her Spanish and Australian versions:

Canberra Juan Carlos Levent
Displacement (tons) 27.500 27.500 27.460
Length (meters) 230 230 230
Speed (knots) 19 21 20,5
Range (n. miles) 9.000 9.000 9.000
Crew 240 295 240

The exact plane and helicopter load is not published but Juan Carlos design has capacity for 11 medium class helicopters and up to 7 Harrier type planes. Nobody is talking it openly yet, but it is highly possible that the S/VTOL version of F-35 may be acquired in the future to be used on this ship. Turkey is a member of the F-35 alliance and wants to buy at least 100 planes of the land based version.

For self-defence, the ship will have at least two MK-15 Phalanx CIWS and 3 or 4 remote-controlled weapon platforms  such as Aselsan’s STAMP or STOP.

ECM and ESM systems, IR signature measurement systems, electro-optic sensors, torpedo defence systems will be among many subsystems provided by Turkish companies. The combat management system will be also indigenous and will be based on GENESİS CMS.

With the signing of the contract for the LPD, Turkey Navy has entered to the Dreadnought Owners Club of the 21. Century. The large amphibious ships with docking and flight capability are the new Dreadnoughts of our era.

Large amphibious ships are the only real multi-purpose ships of any navy can posses and are the naval equivalent of Swiss army knives.

The potential uses for a large amphibious ships can be:
• force projection (the most obvious use)
• evacuation of combatants and non-combatants
• command ship for task force
• logistical supply platform during a humanitarian crisis or disaster
• mother-ship for small boat operations and helicopters
• mine warfare (as all large amphibious ships of Turkish Navy have mine laying capability)

In 2006 , The Commander of Turkish Naval Forces Admiral Yener Karahanoğlu, laid down the long terms amphibious ship acquisition goals for Turkish Navy:

• One LPD
• Two LST’s
• 8 fast LCT’s
• 27 AAV/AAAV’s

The first project to start according to this road map was procurement of 8 LCT’s. This project officially started in 2009 with the signing of the contract and ended in 2014 with the commissioning of 8 LCT’s into Turkish Navy.

The procurement of the LST’s was the second project. For the LST’s UDI submitted a Request for Proposal. on May 2008. On 6 January 2010 ADİK shipyard was declared as the winner of the bid. A contract for the construction of two new LST’s was signed between Ministry of Defence and ADİK in 2011. The first ship was to be delivered in 48 months after the signing of the contract.

The tender process for LPD has started in 2011 when UDI submitted the RfP. In May 2011, three Turkish shipyards, Deasan, RMK Marine and Sedef submitted their bids for RfP to design and build a LPD type ship. RMK Marine submitted its own design, Sedef teamed with Navantia and submitted a redesigned Juan Carlos 1. The most secretive bid was Deasan’s. The shipyard teamed with China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation which builds the Type 071 amphibious ships for PLA(N).

On 27 December 2013 the Defence Industry Executive Committee decided to start contract negotiation with the Sedef Ship Building Company, which was signed on 7 May 2015.

When commissioned she will be the capital ship of Turkish Navy.

Technical Specifications Of Turkish LPD

L-61 SPS Juan Carlos 1

L-61 SPS Juan Carlos 1

I have received a copy of the press release made by Defense Industry Undersecretariat, after posting my blog about the Turkish LPD project.

I have created the below table with the information on the press release to make a comparison between the Spanish Juan Carlos, Australian Canberra and Turkish LPD, all based on the same Navantia design.

Canberra Juan Carlos Levent
Displacement (tons) 27.500 27.500 19.000
Length (meters) 230 230 200
Speed (knots) 19 21 20
Range (n. miles) 9.000 9.000 7.000
Crew 240 295 240

Please mind that the information about the Turkish LPD is estimations and may change during the course of the project.

The crew will be 190 sailors, 56 air crew, 50 medical staff, 200 command staff and up to 700 marines.

The LPD will be able to carry 13 MBT’s, 27 armored amphibious attack vessels, 6 armored personnel carriers and 33 truck in the garage bay.

The air component will consist of 4 at least 15 ton helicopters on the flight deck and 4 at least 15 ton helicopters or 3 UAV’s in the hangar.

 

Turkey Has Chosen Its New Dreadnought

Soon under a Turkish flag!

Soon under a Turkish flag!

On 27 December 2013 the Defence Industry Executive Committee made a statement consisting of just one sentence:

After the completion of the evaluation of the bids for Landing Platform Dock (LPD) project by Defense Industry Undersecretariat, on 26 December 2013, the Defense Industry Executive Committee decided to start contract negotiation with the Sedef Ship Building Company; and if the negotiations with Sedef Ship Building Company should fail the negotiations shall continue with Desan Ship Building Company.

The Turkish of official statements can be very long and confusing and sometimes ignorant of grammar rules and as I wanted to remain royal to the one sentence of the original statement the translation is less than perfect. I do apologies for that.

The statement might be small but its importance is huge. This statement declares that Turkey Navy is about to enter into the Dreadnought Owners Club of the 21. Century. As you see the large amphibious ships with docking and flight capability are the new Dreadnoughts of our era.

Large amphibious ships are the only real multi-purpose ships of any navy can posses. The are the naval equivalent of Swiss army knives.

The potential uses for a large amphibious ships can be:
• force projection (the most obvious use)
• evacuation of combatants and non-combatants
• command ship for task force
• logistical supply platform during a humanitarian crisis or disaster
• mother-ship for small boat operations and helicopters
• mine warfare (as all large amphibious ships of Turkish Navy have mine laying capability)

In 2006 , The Commander of Turkish Naval Forces Admiral Yener Karahanoğlu, laid down the long terms amphibious ship acquisition goals for Turkish Navy:
• One LPD
• Two LST’s
• 8 fast LCT’s
• 27 AAV/AAAV’s

The first project to start according to this road map was the procurement of 8 LCT’s. In 2007, Ministry of Defence’s Undersecretariat for Defence Industries (UDI), submitted a Request for Proposal (RfP) for 8 LCT’s. From the four companies that bid, ADİK shipyard was chosen. On June 2009, a contract was signed between UDI and ADİK for the production of 8 ships. The exact value of the contract was not made public but it is estimated to be around 100 million EUR. The first ship Ç-151 was launched on 2 October 2010. All 8 units have been delivered to Turkish Navy by December 2013.

The procurement of the LST’s was the second project. For the LST’s UDI submitted a RFP on May 2008. On 6 January 2010 again ADİK shipyard was declared as the winner of the bid. A contract for the construction of two new LST’s was signed between Ministry of Defence and ADİK in 2011. The first ship will be delivered in 48 months after the signing of the contract.

The tender process for LPD has started in 2011 when UDI submitted the RfP. In May 2011, three Turkish shipyards, Deasan, RMK Marine and Sedef submitted their bids for RfP to design and build a LPD type ship. RMK Marine submitted their own design, Sedef teamed with Navantia and submitted a redesigned Juan Carlos 1. The most secretive bid was Deasan’s. The shipyard teamed with China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation which builds the Type 071 amphibious ships for PLA(N).

With this weeks announcement Sedef – Navantia partnership was selected for the largest warship, Turkish Navy will operate.

The details of are vague but according to the Twitter account of Navantia, the Spanish company will provide the engines, the turbine, the IPMS (Integrated Platform Management System) and LCM-1E landing craft.

I’m quite sure that many Spaniards at the economically beleaguered Navantia are celebrating this decision. Navantia was the only company that was able to give a working example of the ship it  offered The RMK Marine’s bid exists only on paper and nobody know much about the Chinese solution much expect it is being constructed. The LPD project is a huge project in every sense and it seems that no body wanted to take any risks by choosing a non-existing ship.

When commissioned she will be the capital ship of Turkish Navy. The dreadnought era of Turkish Navy has started.

Is The Mysterious Chinese Amphibious Ship A Contender In Turkish LPD Bid?

On 21 July 2011, the Navy Technology website reported that the Chinese Navy has officially launched its largest amphibious dock landing warship, Jinggangshan, in Shanghai.

While the information about the ship is sketchy and the lack of any visual material makes any assessment difficult it was reported that the 210m-long warship had a water displacement capacity of 19,000t and could carry 1,000 soldiers, helicopters, armoured fighting vehicles, boats and landing craft.

But a clone of that ship may end up in Turkish Navy if the Deasan Shipyard wins the bid for Turkish LPD.

In May 2011, three Turkish shipyards, Deasan, RMK Marine and Sedef submitted their bids for RfT to design and build a LPD type ship. RMK Marine submitted their own design, Sedef teamed with Navantia and submitted a redesigned Juan Carlos 1. The most secretive bid was Deasan’s. The shipyard teamed with China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation which build the Type 071 amphibious ships for PLA(N).

As is the design of Type 071 does not covers the requirements of Turkish Navy but the new mysterious Type 081 could be a match. If so then competition for the Turkish LPD will be really interesting to watch.

At the moment all this is just a speculation as there is simply not enough information available on Type 081.

 

Click here to read more on Turkish LPD contest.

 

On Board Of SPS Juan Carlos 1

Today I was on board of the Spanish amphibious ship Juan Carlos 1 for a press conference and a guided tour of the ship. The attendance to the conference was higher than I have expected.

The press conference started with the speaking of the commanding officer  Captain Christopher Gonzalez-Aller Lacalle. He talked in general terms about the ship and its role in the Spanish Navy. He stated that Juan Carlos 1 is the biggest ship ever operated by the Spanish Navy in history. On a question why the ship was here in Istanbul, he answered that the ship was still in the warranty period of Navantia and they were on a endurance trip to determine how the ship operated away from their logistical base. This 45 day endurance trip will end soon when the ship returns to Spain. She will be declared operative in November 2011.

How to dock if you have no rudders.

Later Lt. Commander Calvo made a small briefing about the capabilities of the ship. I have asked about the turning radius of the ship and its stopping distance. As the ship does have two pods with pulling and pushing propellers instead of conventional propellers and rudders she can turn basically on the spot. And if an crash stop order is given when the ship is cruising on standard 15 knots she can come to full stop in less then 2 time the ship length. That means the 26.000 ton ship can decelerate from 27 km/h to 0 km/h in less than 462 meters. I think that this is impressive.

As there are no propeller shafts and ruder in traditional sense the main machinery consisting of one gas turbine and two diesels are used for producing electricity to run the ship. There are also no reductions gears. The main machinery is capable of producing 36 MW @ 6600 volts.

The number of aircraft, helicopters, main battle tanks and other military vehicles depends on the mission profiles and on the types of the vehicles. In general she has 6 spots on the flight deck for a simultaneous operation of NH-90 size helicopters. This number decreases to 4 if large helicopters such as CH-47 Chinooks are operated.

The helm and controls for the pods and bow thrusters

After the press conference first we taken to the bridge and then to the flight dispatcher. Both are very specious and all the windows which are necessary to see every thing going around creates a greenhouse effects. The black interiors painting does not help either. On the bridge the controls for the pods and bow thrusters were more prominent than the helm. In the era of pods and bow thrusters , the size and the importance of the helm is diminishing.

The CIC is very specious compared to the CIC’s I have seen on various frigates. The CIC is dived in two one half is for maritime component the other half is for amphibious and air operations. There are large office spaces for the staff officers on the same level of the CIC. The direct access the CIC from these office space which makes going back and forth and easy walk.

Inside the CIC

The combat management system SCOMBA was developed by Navantia in house. Obviously were not informed about the sensors and the SCOMBA. But according the internet gossip, it is not without any problems.

When were walking and climbing up/down the stairs I have realized that the gangways and the bulkheads were wide. I do not want to compare my Lowepro Pro-Trekker 300 AW camera backpack to a marine infantryman’s rucksack but I had no difficulty in moving inside the ship with my backpack on my back.

The ship has a citadel for protection against NBC weapons and a sprinkler system for decontamination. One cannot fully close a ship that has so many elevators, doors and access hatches. Therefore I assume that the citadel is limited to the living and main working areas inside the ship.

The hangar / garage spaces appeared to me very large. This may be due to the fact that the ships was not fully loaded for this endurance cruise. The height of the hanger was sufficient for a mechanic to stay on a wing of a Harrier or to work on a helicopter like SH-3D.

The dock can be flooded in 90 minutes and emptied in same duration. The dock can hold 4 LCM’s. The gangway in the middle of the dock makes it easier for the marines to climb to the LCM’s on the second row but makes it impossible for any craft wider than a LCM to operate.

I was told that a demo was made for high ranking Turkish Admirals visiting the ship. In that demo it took only 5 minutes for a army truck to be loaded on a LCM and for the LCM to depart the dock.

Starboard side of the dock with a LCM inside.

When I was younger I would ask questions about the sensors, weapons and such stuff. I have realized as I grow older I am more interested in the habitat of the ship for its crew. When I asked the young engineering officer about the habitability of the ship his eyes glowed. He said that the ship is as comfortable as civilian cruise ships.

The officers berthing is comfortable with two officers sharing a stateroom. 4 to 6 petty officers share a stateroom. The seamen are accommodate in dozens. The officers and petty officers have their own WC in their rooms. The sailors share communal WC’s/baths. The marines stay 18 in a stateroom. In each officers cabin there is a PC for personal use. There are films and music on the shared on board LAN. Besides there is satellite TV, and phones to call home. I have seen vending machines. The sole galley of the ship is located in the middle of the eating area and is easily accessible. The quality of the food was good according to my guide and hey there is alcohol on board if you are not on duty.

The tour ended with a small reception inside the aircraft hangar.

SPS Juan Carlos 1 is the biggest warship I have ever visited yet. After seeing the capability, the amenities and the facilities such a warship provides I know now why amphibious ships are dreadnoughts of our era.

The heavy cargo garage seen from the docks

The entrance of the hangar seen from the aft elevator


A Landing Ship Docked, For The Turkish Navy (UPDATED)

LPD Model of RMK

Some time ago, I have read a very interesting and thought evoking post on the influential blog information dissemination, about the large amphibious ships (LAS) becoming the dreadnoughts of the 21. centuries maritime domain.

Well read the post yourselves and decide if it is true or not. But if you ask me amphibious ships (landing ship docked, landing ship platform, landing ship helicopter ) are the only real multi purpose ships of any navy can posses. The are the naval equivalent of Swiss army knives.

The potential uses for a large amphibious ships can be:
• force projection (the most obvious use)
• evacuation of combatants and non-combatants
• command ship for task force
• logistical supply platform during a humanitarian crisis or disaster
• mother-ship for small boat operations and helicopters
• mine warfare (as all large amphibious ships of Turkish Navy have mine laying capability)

In 2006 , The Commander of  Turkish Naval Forces Admiral Yener Karahanoğlu, laid down the long terms amphibious ship acquisition goals for Turkish Navy:
• One LPD
• Two LST’s
• 8 fast LCT’s
• 27 AAV/AAAV’s

According to this road map in 2007,  Ministry of Defence’s Undersecretariat for Defence Industries (UDI), submitted a RfP for 8 LCT’s. From the four companies that bid, ADİK shipyard was chosen. On June 2009, a contract was signed between UDI and ADİK for the production of 8 ships. The exact value of the contract was not made public but it is estimated to be around 100 million EUR. The first ship Ç-151 was launched on 2 October 2010. Her sea trials are continuing. The second ship Ç-152 was launched on March 2011.

For the LST’s UDI submitted a RFP on May 2008. On 6 January 2010 again ADİK shipyard was declared as the winner of the bid. UDI is in contract negations with this company.And a contract for the construction of two new LST’s was signed between Ministry of Defence and same shipyard just last week. The ships will be delivered in 48 months.

And as you read this blog the third important amphibious ship procurement project will enter into the next phase. Today was last day for companies to submit their proposals for the Landing Platform Dock. Now the evaluation of the proposals by UDI will commence.

LPD model of Fincantieri

During the years the requirements of the Turkish Navy changed so that the size of the LPD has increased. It is estimated that today’s proposals will have a displacement between 25.000 to 28.000 tons range. The ship will have a landing deck big enough to accommodated 4 helicopters of 15 ton class at the same time. According to the RfP the flight deck should be able to support aircraft up to 35 tons weight. . The total personnel on board the ship’s crew plus air detachment and embarked troops is around 1000.

Seven shipyards, ADIK, Çelik Tekne, Dearsan Shipyard, Desan Shipyard, Istanbul Shipyard, RMK Marine and SEDEF received the RfP in February and have been given time till today to prepare their proposals. Some of the teamed with foreign companies. Candidates include DCNS, Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding, Navantia, Hanjin Heavy Industries and China State Shipbuilding Corporation are believed to be interested in cooperating with Turkish shipyards for the LPD.

RMK, contrary to the expectations did not cooperated with Fincantieri for this project. In fact a reprasentitve from Fincantieri told me during IDEF that his company would not take part in the bid as their largest amphibious desing was only 20.000 tons. The RMK shipyard has developed its own design with some help from BMT.

Navantia teamed with Sedef Shipyard. Their offer will be something between Juan Carlos 1 and Galicia class ships. Sedef is the first private shipyard ever to produce a ship for the Turkish Navy: A-595 TCG Yarbay Kudret Güngör. I would be a life saver for the local shipyard is they can repeat their one time hit again.

The current solutions of China (Type 071) and South Korea (Dokto class) are less than 20.000 tons. As is they do not have much chance to be successful. I have no information with with Turkish yard they have teamed and how their proposal is prepared. Chinese are showing a growing interest in Turkish defence market. They are competing for the Turkish long ranges SAM system. But in order for the Chinese proposal to be successful they must incorporate Western and local subsystems which are known to Turkish Navy. As Indian naval projects showed, incorporating Western naval systems with Eastern ships can create a lot of problems and headaches and success is not always guarentted.

DCNS’s Mistral has the right size and displacement but political disagreements with France makes it almost impossible for the company to bid.

When commissioned this ship will be the largest ship ever operated by Turkish Navy and it will be our capital ship. The dreadnought era of  Turkish Navy starts today.

UPDATE: Today, Undersecretariat for Defence Industries announced that they have received proposals from the following 3 shipyards:

1. SEDEF Gemi İnşaatı A.Ş.
2. RMK Marine Gemi Yapım Sanayii
3. Deniz Taşımacılığı İşletmesi A.Ş. ve DESAN Deniz İnşaatı San. A.Ş.

The competition will be between the Juan Carlos, RMK/BMT design and Dokto.

>The Request For Proposal For Turkish LPD Has Been Issued

>Undersecretariat for Defence Industries (SSM), issued a request for proposal for the construction of one docked landing ship (LPD) for Turkish Navy.

The LPD is the biggest project of Amphibious War fighting road map of Turkish Navy declared in 2006. The long terms amphibious ship acquisition goals of Turkish Navy are following:

• One LPD
• Two LST’s
• 8 fast LCT’s
• 27 AAV/AAAV’s

The construction of eight LCT’s has been already started. The tender for the two LST’s has been awarded, the contract negotiations are continuing.

With the issue of the RFP the official acquisition process of the LPD has started. It is noteworthy that the RFI was send only to shipyards registered in Defense Industries Sectoral Strategy Document

1. Anadolu Deniz İnşaat Kızakları A.Ş.
2. Çelik Tekne Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş.
3. DEARSAN Gemi İnşaat Sanayi A.Ş.
4. DESAN Deniz İnşaat Sanayi A.Ş.
5. İstanbul Denizcilik Gemi İnşa San ve Tic. A.Ş
6. RMK Marine Gemi Yapım Sanayi A.Ş.
7. SEDEF Gemi İnşaatı A.Ş.

As I do have access to the details of the RFP, I cannot say at if foreign companies can build ventures with those shipyards mentioned above. But Turkish Navy never operated any LPD’s before and these shipyards did not build one before. Thus some kind if foreign know-how will be / might be use full.

The commissioning of the above mentioned new amphibious ships will change the power projection capabilities of Turkish Navy fundamentally. The LPD will surely be used for humanitarian missions as well.

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