The Nature Of The Beast

This is a photo of TCG Yıldıray, during a transit through Istanbul. TCG Batıray is identical.

Russian website inforeactor published a post about the Sea Breeze 2017 naval exercise, held in Ukraine, between 10. and 23. July 2017.

According to the post Turkish submarine TCG Batıray was able succesful ambushing Ukrainian frigate Hetman Sahaidachny and US Navy cruiser USS Hué City.

So, an incidental situation developed during the training search for a submarine in the coastal waters of Odessa. According to the plan of the exercises, the Turkish diesel-electric submarine S349 Batiray lay in ambush, waiting for the passage of a large warship. She was searched by US cruiser CG66 Hue City and the flagship of the Ukrainian fleet, the “Hetman Sagaidachny” frigate. However, already at sea it became clear that both ships were not capable of detecting submarines.

On an American vessel, the towed hydroacoustic station was absent, since it was sent for repair. And in general, Americans positioned themselves as observers and advisers. On the Ukrainian ship, the situation was no better – after the “overhaul”, the GAS simply disappeared, and there were no others in the warehouses. Almost 7 hours the flotilla was looking for a Turkish submarine, until it was decided to lift the aircraft into the air. But even here the Americans did not use their equipment, leaving the search for the conscience of the Mi-14PL. On board the Ukrainian helicopter still preserved several sonar buoys, but they were without power supplies. As a result, the search was carried out purely theoretically. “Intruder” was discovered only after ascending to periscope depth….


TCG Batıray is an old submarine in service since 1978. She represents the first generation of Type 209 boats in service. Never the less, TCG Batıray being a conventional submarine and a knowing the area well has a distinct advantage against Hetman Sahaidachny and USS Hué City. The former is a Krivak III class frigate originally constructed for Soviet Border Guard forces. She is old and desperately needs replacement, something Ukraine currently can’t afford. USS Hué City is a Ticonderoga class cruiser, primary an air / ballistic missile defence ship with better underwater sensors than Ukrainian frigate.

This year Sea Breeze exercise did not  had a predetermined scenario. This year the exercise was held in a “free play” mode. Thus Turkish submarine took the necessary actions to hide itself and hunt its targets.

The Russian is a blatant propaganda site. They published this post not to praise Turkish Navy but to ridicule the Ukrainian Navy and it’s largest supporter US Navy. But to be honest what else could be the outcome of the described encounter?  That is the nature of the submarine warfare.

Foreign Warship On Bosphorus in 2017 (Part 22)

Here are photos of foreign warships, that have passed through Bosphorus, during the last 3,5 weeks:

Russian mine sweeper Valentin Pikul returning from her Mediterranean deployment. Photo: Saadettin Irmakçı via Yörük Işık.

The 3rd improved Kilo class submarine to join the Black Sea Fleet, Krasnodar made her maiden voyage through Turkish Straits. Her deployment cruise lasted more than 4 months with a 3 months loitering off the coast of Syria. Photo: Saadettin Irmakçı via Yörük Işık.

Russian intelligence gathering ship Kildin, southbound on Bosphorus. Photo: Tom Brindle.

The flagship of NATO Standing Maritime Group Two, HMS Duncan exited Black Sea after spending 19 days.

US cruiser USS Hué City departed Black Sea when the naval exercise with Ukraine finished. Photo: Aşkın Eyüpoğlu.

US Navy Arleigh Burke class destroyer USS Carney heading towards Marmara Sea. She took part in the naval exercise Sea Breeze in Ukraine.

Super Vita class fast attack craft, HS Anthypoploiarchos Ritsos passed through Turkish Straits after participating in Breeze 2017 naval exercise.


The list of the foreign warships passed through Istanbul Strait is here.

Back From Vacation

I have been silent for the last couple weeks. I was on vacation. And returned with the following photos:

Fast tanker RFA Wave Ruler

Cable laying ship USS Zeus.

Type 23 class frigate, HMS Montrose

Survey vessel HMS Scott. Ship’s emblem on her funnel, tells us where she spends most of her time.

Type-23 frigate HMS Somerset.

Trafalgar class submarine Ex- HMS Torbay being decommissioned, while HMS Bulwark in the background being deactivated.

HMS Albion being re-activated to replace HMS Bulwark.

Another Trafalgar class submarine ex- HMS Triumph being deactivated.

Type-23 class frigate HMS Argyll.

The former flagship of Royal Navy HMS Ocean.

TCG Gökova Arrived In Qatar

F-496 TCG Gökova arrives at Hamid Port in Qatar. Photo: AA

On 1. August 2017, Turkish Gabya class frigate TCG Gökova arrived in Qatar. The ship is docked in Hamad Port, southeast of the capital Doha.

The ship will take part in Qatari – Turkish military exercise that will held between 1 and 8 August 2017. Turkish land forces stationed in Qatar and TCG Gökova will take part in this exercise.

According to news report, the naval exercises are taking place in Hamad Port, Doha Naval Base and Qatari territorial waters. The exercises are conducted as part of military cooperation agreements between Turkey and Qatar in the fight against extremism and terrorism.

In July, the Qatari Emiri Naval Forces conducted a joint naval exercise with Royal Navy, in Qatar’s territorial waters.

TCG Gökova left Turkey last month. On 9. July 2017, bulk carrier M/V Blue Fury, left Turkey with 11 thousand tons of food and aid on board. The ship’s destination was Yemen.
The cargo on board of M/V Blue Fury was organised by Turkish Red Crescent, and Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD). She was escorted along her voyage by TCG Gökova.

Chinese Warships Visited Istanbul

Type 054A frigate 532 Jingzhou (left) and Type 052C destroyer 150 Changchun docked to Istanbul Sarayburnu quay.

Type 093 replenishment tanker 890 Chaohu

Between 18 and 21 July 2017 a task force of 3 Chinese warship made a visit to Istanbul

Task Group 150 consisting of Type 052C destroyer 150 Changchun, Type 054A frigate 532 Jingzhou and Type 093 replenishment tanker 890 Chaohu have left China on 23 April 2017, on the 68th anniversary of the founding of the PLAN, for a goodwill voyage to some 20 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania.

The task force headed by Admiral Miao Hua were welcomed by Chinese Military Attaché to Ankara Zheng Qinli, Consul General to Istanbul Qian Bo and a group of Chinese citizens.

This year’s visit was very similar to the previous PLAN visit to Istanbul in 2012 and 2015. In both cases the PLAN fleet was made of one destroyer, one frigate and one replenishment ship.

In 2012 and in 2015 however the destroyer and the frigate have passed through the Bosphorus and entered the Black Sea. This year the ships stayed in Istanbul and have not transit through the Strait northbound. The PLAN task force spend 4 days in Istanbul and left for the Mediterranean.

Here are some close up photos of the destroyer Changhun:

And here are some close up photos of the frigate Jingzhou:

A Submarine Sighted

Type 209/1400 class submarine TCG Preveze passing southbound through Bosphorus

On 25 July 2017, a Turkish Navy, Preveze or Gür class submarine was sighted passing through Bosphorus.

Since Turkish Navy stopped painting the pennant number of the submarines on their hulls, it is impossible to identify each individual submarine anymore. While this new painting scheme helps the submarines to blend and prevents IR/FLIR/LLTV using trackers or electro-optic directors any high contrast target, it makes ship spotting difficult.

Last week TCG Preveze took part in naval exercise Breeze in Bulgaria while TCG Batıray took part in naval exercise Sea Breeze 2017 in Ukraine.

Since this is the first Preveze or Gür class submarine returning from the Black Sea and the only one recently reported to be deployed in the region, I think it is safe to say that this submarine is S-353 TCG Preveze.

Foreign Warship On Bosphorus in 2017 (Part 21)

Here are photos of foreign warships, that have passed through Bosphorus, during the last week:

Russian auxiliary Dvinitsa-50 returned from her Syrian deployment.

French Horizon class frigate Chevalier Paul finished her week-long deployment in the Black Sea and sailed southbound through Istanbul.

Krivak class frigate of Russian Black Sea Fleet, Pytlivy made her first southbound passage through Istanbul in 2017.

French Horizon class frigate Chevalier Paul made her first northbound passage through Istanbul. She is heading to Romania.

The list of the foreign warships passed through Istanbul Strait is here.

Foreign Warship On Bosphorus in 2017 (Part 20)

Here are photos of foreign warships, that have passed through Bosphorus, since 15 June:

Russian auxiliary cargo vessel Kyzyl-60 southbound. Photo: Serhat Güvenç

The flagship of NATO task force SNMG-2, HMS Duncan seen here passing through Dardanelles. Before proceeding to the Black Sea, the ship made a 4 day port visit in Istanbul. She is taking part in Breeze 2017 exercise.

Super Vita class fast attack craft, HS Anthypoploiarchos Ritsos passed through Turkish Straits to participate in Breeze 2017 naval exercise.

Admiral Grigorovich, was in Mediterranean since April. She was relived by Admiral Essen. Here Admiral Grigorovich is passing through Istanbul on her way to home, for a deserved rest. Photo: Alper Böler.

Russian frigate Admiral Essen made a quick, 4 day trip to the Black Sea. Here she is returning back to the Mediterranean. HMS Duncan can bee seen on the right at port. Turkish LCT Ç-324 is also in the frame She close to the landing pad of the Russian warship.

After a pause of 39 days Tsezar Kunikov is again seen southbound. Photo: Yörük Işık.

USS Hue City northbound. She is proceeding to Odessa. Photo: Kerim Bozkurt.

USS Carney making a northbound transit through Istanbul on her way to Sea Breeze 2017 exercise. Photo: Yörük Işık.

Admiral Essen making her maiden transit through Istanbul. The ship has been on her maiden deployment from the Baltic Sea to her home fleet in the Black Sea.

Russian auxiliary Dvinitsa-50 making another sounthbound trip to Syria.

The new Russian tug, SB-739 southbound. Photo: Alper Böler

The list of the foreign warships passed through Istanbul Strait is here.

Lest We Forget: Rauf Orbay

53 years ago today a naval officer passed away following a heart attack, suffered after 82 years of a turbulent life full of wars, political struggles and exiles. A life shaped by the sea. The full name of the marine registry is Huseyin Rauf, the son of Mehmet Muzaffer from Cibali.

His biography you will read below was originally written in Turkish by Uğur Esmer, a very fine history student and a naval enthusiasts. I have shortened and translated his text to English. Any syntax or grammer mistakes you will find are mine. If you want to read the original text please click here.

Rauf Orbay, born in 1881 as the son of Mehmet Muzaffer Pasha, the First Ferik (Admiral) anda member of the Ayan Parliament, continued his education at the Primary School in Cibali Primary School. The finished his studies in Tripoli after his father was appointed as a commodore to serve here. Later, in 1896, he returned to Istanbul to continue his family tradition and enrolled in Heybeliada Naval High School with the number 320.

On March 29, 1899, he was appointed as a lieutenant to the Selimiye frigate as an engineer for training. After this training, he was appointed as a navigation officer on to ship İdare-i Mahsusa Garp on 1 April 1899. On September 29, 1900, he was appointed as a navigation officer to the Mesudiye armored cruiser. On April 9, 1901, he was promoted to First Lieutenant. On April 23, 1904, he was promoted to captain. Being fluent in English and a successful officer, he has begun to stand out in international contacts and meetings.

Rauf Orbay was assigned to the armored vessel Mesudiye on 23 August 1904. During this duty he became interpreter for Buckham Pascha. He was in real life Ransford D. Buckham, a captain of one of whaleback steamers who commanded Mesudiye on her delivery voyage from USA to Istanbul. He decided to stay in Turkey, and was eventually promoted to Rear Admiral with the title of Pasha. He was a consultant in the Ottoman Navy and together with Rauf Orbay they made a trip to the shipyards in England and America. Both man created a close friendship was established between them over time.

While they are in America, Bucknam Pasha and Rauf Orbay went to the White House, to meet with the President of the United States. When they entered the president’s office, they saw a man sitting on the table, shaking his feet and reading a document. Rauf Orbay thought this guy to be the president’s secretary. He asked Buckham Pascha, who this rude man was, who did not even lift his head. Buckham replies that the man sitting on the table was no one else but the President Theodore Roosevelt.

President Roosevelt gave Rauf Orbay a signed special permission document to examine the shipyards and submarine construction sites at the end of the day’s talks.

A young lieutenant named Chester Nimitz was assigned as a guide to Rauf Orbay during his visits to the submarine shipyard. They have found an opportunity for a short trip on a submarine. Unfortunately there was a problem with the submarine and they had to stay submerged 10 long hours before surfacing again.

In October 1906 he was assigned to the crew tasked to bring the armored vessel Asar-i Tevfik back from Germany after her repairs were completed.

In March 1907 he appointed as the commander torpedo cruiser, Peyk-i Şevket. With Peyk-i Şevket he took part in the operations to suppress the Sisam uprising. In the same year he also participated in the activities of the Movement Army, that came to Istanbul because subdue the March 31 Uprising. During his involvement with the Movement Army he met with Mustafa Kemal Bey (Atatürk) and İsmet Bey (İnönü). This acquaintance would shape his life in a profound way.

For Rauf Orbay the most important day in his life is May 5 1909, the day he was assigned as the commander of the cruiser Hamidiye. This was an important milestone and turning point in the history.

Hamidiye, a protected cruiser order to Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth & co, in Newcastle on 1900 and commissioned in Ottoman Navy in 1904 was one of the best warships built and served 40 years, well into the 20. Century.

Hamidiye had a displacement of 3600 tons. Her length was 128 meters and width 12 meters. Her main armament consisted two 152mm quick firing guns. The secondary armament had six 101mm, three 76mm and 4 57mm guns. Additionally she had two 533mm torpedo tubes. Her speed was up to 27 kts. She could bunker 710 tons coal.

The first mission of Rauf Orbay and Hamidiye was to help to suppress the rebellion in Albania.

In 1911 Hamidiye was selected to represent Ottoman Empire at the coronation ceremony of King George VI of England.

Upon the start of the Balkan War, Hamidiye deployed to the Black Sea with a fleet of eight ships. They shelled ports of Varna and Kavarna

The Greek Army started to occupy islands near Anatolia with the help of the Greek Navy. With the help of the battleship Averof, Greek Navy was effectively blockading Dardanelles.

Rauf Orbay thought to use his ship as a bait by sailing to Aegean and forcing Averof to follow him. Thus creating an opportunity for the Ottoman Navy to break the blockade. He explained his plan to Minister of Navy Çürüksulu Hasan Paşa and got the permission. The naval commander and his deputies assembled a warplane action plan and identified the neutral codes for the ship’s radio codes and the ship’s shelter. The call sign of the Hamidiye would be “Fox”.

On January 13, 1913, Hamidiye sailed to Kepez Bay and dropped the anchor. Rauf Orbay ordered to flammable materials such as diesel and sawdust on the deck and informed Ottoman Naval HQ in a clear radio transmission about the fire. Later that that night, hidden in the darkness Hamidiye sailed out of Dardanelles. The cruiser started her raid that would last 7 months and 23 days.

The first target of the raid was Ermoupoli port on Syros Island. When Hamidiye arrived, the auxiliary cruiser Macedonia as in port. Hamidiye open fire on Macedonia causing her to sink in shallow water. The Ottoman warship also shelled the gunpowder factory and the power plant. This raid created excitement and indignation but Greek Navy refused to take the bait. The battleship Averof stayed off Dardanelles and Hamidiye was pursued by other ships.

According to the original plan Hamidiye was turn to İzmir but Rauf Orbay decided to sail to Adriatic Sea and harass the Greek merchant ships there.

The ship’s engines were not producing the maximum power due to the bad quality of the coal aboard. It was decided to go to Beirut for coal supply. During the supply an unidentified warships was spotted on the horizon. Hamidiye had to stop refueling and leave the port immediately.

Rauf Orbay commanded his ship to Port Said. The Egyptian government being neutral during the Balkan Wars, said it would not be able to supply more than 150 tons of coal. Rauf Orbay decided to sail to the Red Sea. With this move Ottoman Naval HQ would gain time to find suitable grade coal to supply Hamidiye and transport it to a port in Eastern Mediterranean.

Rauf Orbay who had a good sence for diplomacy and politics visited the Khiedive of Egypt, asking for coal. The Khidive agreed but with the condition that the lading of coal should be done in a remote area as it was against the neutrality rules.

Hamidiye sailed to Jeddah arriving here on February 3. The ship then sailed to north and again passing through Suez Canal. On February 14, Hamidiye entered Grand Harbour of Malta saluting the Royal Navy ships with guns. Again showing his diplomacy skills Rauf Orbay extended the duration of his visit from 24 hours to 72 hours and loaded 450 tons of coal.

Greek Navy dispatched armored vessel Psara and destroyers Aetos, Lonchi, Aspis to protect the Adricatic coast and to intercept Hamidiye. While the Greek ships were searching for her Hamidiye arrived in Gaza.

Hamidiye spend some time in Eastern Mediterranean before Ottoman General Staff tasked the ship to carry gold and ammunition to the Ottoman army in Albania. Hamidiye set sail from Papadola (Babadil) with 50 tons of ammunition and 10.000 gold cargo on 8 March 1913.

Hamidiye was almost identical to Italian cruiser Drama. Therefore when passing the Otranto Straits between Greece and Italy the Italian Naval flag was ready to be hoisted, if necessary.

Hamidiye and Greek destroyer Lonchi sighted each other from the distance, but noting happened as the larger ship was mistaken as Averrof by the destroyer. On 12 March 1909 at 03.24, Hamidiye encountered Greek merchant ship Leros. The merchant ship was ordered to stop and her 20 strong crew was taken on board. As gun fire would create unnecessary attention Rauf Orbay decided to sink Leros by ramming.

Upon arriving Shingin, Albania, Hamidiye sighted Greek merchant ships and army troops inside the port. The cruiser started to shell the port from the outside creating a large kaos. Five out of the existing 7 ships were sunk the remaining damaged

The crew of Leros were put on a nearby island with a few days’ food, water, rifles and ammunition to defend themselves against the gangs on land. 

After exiting Adriatic, Hamdiye returned to the Eastern Mediterranean and remained there until the end of the hostilities. At the end of the campaign, Rauf Bey took his place in memories as a protagonist of Hamidiye.

The raid of Hamdiye failed to achieve its main goal to lure Averrof to follow her. Never the less this raid created distraction for the enemy and galvanized the Ottoman public opinion.

Rauf Orbay was choosen to be the commander of the first Ottoman dreadnought Sultan Osman-ı Evvel ordered from England. A few hours before the flag rising ceremony, UK decided to seize the ship because of the looming World War 1.

Rauf Orbay spend the World War 1 desk bound. In 1917 he went to Germany to visit Emperor Wilhelm along with the Naval Minister Cemal Pasha and the Undersecretary Vâsıf Bey.
When Rauf Bey, was presented to the German Emperor Wilhelm, the Emperor’s first words were: “I followed your raid on Hamidiye with a great interest. Our Emden wanted to imitate you, but unfortunately could not be succeeded, she sunk on the road”

In September same year he was promoted to Captain. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, he attended the meeting in Copenhagen as the President of the Turkish Delegation. Later, he represented the Ottoman Empire as a naval delegate at the Brest Litovsk Peace Conference. At the end of the war, when the existing cabinet resigned he was chosen as Naval minister on the newly established Ahmet Izzet Pasha Cabinet, on 14 October 1918.

On 30 October, Rauf Orbay signed on behalf of the Ottoman government the armistice agreement on board of HMS Agamemnon at the port of Mondros.

One week later he resigned from the Navy but his resignation was not accepted. He finally resigned from the military on May 3 1919 ending a very successful and inspiring naval career.

Later in May, he joined Mustafa Kemal Pasha and others in Anatolia. He is one of the signatories of the declaration of Amasya. In January 1920 he returned to Istanbul to attend the Ottoman Parliament as the deputy of Sivas town. In March 1920 he was arrested by the occupying British Forces and send to exile to Malta.

In November 1921 he was released and returned to Turkey. He proceeded his political career in Ankara. In November 1921 he was elected as Minister of Public Works. On July 13, 1922, Rauf Orbay was elected as the Prime Minister, becoming the first prime minister of the Grand National Assembly.

In 1924 Rauf Orbay was among the founders of Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Party, an important step on transition to a multi-party democratic regime. When the party was closed because of the Sheikh Said uprising, like many other members of the party, he chose to be an independent deputy in the parliament.

In 1926 Rauf Orbay who has been suffering from tropical malaria went to Austria to be treated in Bad-Gaschtein baths, After the treatment was over, he went to London to visit famous Turkish writer Mrs. Halide Edip Adıvar and her husband in London. During his stay in London, a plot to assassinate Mustafa Kemal was uncovered in İzmir. Rauf Orbay was accused to be among the conspirators and was tried in absentia. He was sentenced to 10 years of confinement in a fortress, deprivation of civil rights and the seizure of the goods.

Rauf Orbay never accepted his crimes but could not immediately return to Turkey because he did not have the ability to appeal. Rauf Orbay spent his days in England, India, China and Egypt. During his travels to India he gave lectures on Indian Revolutions and the Turkish Revolution in Delhi and other major cities.

His sentence was pardoned in 1933 with a general amnesty declared for tenth anniversary of the Turkish Republic. Rauf Orbay refused to return to Turkey as this move would mean to accept the pardoned accusations.

It was in 1939 and only after the ruling Republican People’s Party’s nominated him directly as a candidate for deputy of Kastamonu and officially declaring that he had not involved in the assassination plot in 1926 Rauf Orbay returned to his homeland.

Though he was elected as deputy from Kastamonu he remained uninvolved in politics and resign from his post when he was assigned as Turkish Ambassador to United Kingdom, in 1942.

Membership. He continued until March 9, 1944, when the London Embassy resigned.

One day as Ambassador in London, he left his house to attend a meeting, and he noticed a knob of his jacket was swinging. He entered into the first tailor shop he encountered on the street. The tailor behind the counter takes the jacket and then looks carefully at Rauf Orbay and asked, “You remember me, commander?”

The tailor in London turns out to be the captain of the Greek merchant ship Leros, Rauf Orbay had ordered to be sunk.

Rauf Orbay resigned from his post as Turkish Ambassador to United Kingdom in 1944.

Same year when we has visiting his nephew in USA, they rendezvous for a breakfast in a hotel. When in hotel Rauf Orbay notices an official car with an admiral’s pennant drive in. Red carpet is rolled out and a few Marines start to stay guard. An adjutant arrives at the table of Orbay’s and tells them that the admiral wishes to join them.  A few minutes later the admiral arrives and shakes hands saying “Welcome to USA, Admiral”. The american admiral is noone other than Chester Nimitz, whom Rauf Orbay had met when Nimitz was a Lieutenant. Rauf Orbay corrects him saying that he had never made to the rank of admiral and resigned as a captain.

Admiral Nimitz says “We have always followed you from the beginning. You are an admiral in our regard”.

Rauf Orbay spent the rest of his life away from the sea and politics.

He died at his home in Cihangir, İstanbul, 16. July 1964, Thursday at 13.20 from a heart attack. Due to his will, he is buried in Sahra-yı Cedit cemetery next to his father.

Ukranian Naval Exercise Sea Breeze 17 Has Started

US Navy cruiser USS Hue City and Turkish frigate F-241 TCG Turgutreis, off the coast of Ukraine. Photo: US Navy

Sea Breeze 2017 naval exercise has started in Odessa, Ukraine. This is the 17th edition of exercise which takes place in the Black Sea between 10. and 23. July 2017.

This year over 3,000 military personnel, 31 ship and 29 aircraft from the following nations is taking part: Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, France, Georgia, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Unlike previous events this year’s exercise will have no previously written scenario.

The specifics of the Ukrainian-U.S. exercise Sea Breeze 2017 are an altered structure of the headquarters, which this year will make up the exercise control headquarters and a separate naval command headquarters, which is developed in compliance with NATO standards. The method used in holding the exercise will be different from that of the previous exercises as well: the international maneuvers will be held in a “free play” mode,” the press center quoted the head of the working group on planning the exercise nominated by the Ukrainian Navy, Deputy Navy Commander on Training Captain Oleksiy Neizhpapa, as having said.

Neizhpapa added that during the Sea Breeze-2017, the multinational naval command headquarters will exercise planning and control of forces under given conditions, as well as decision-making and supervising with regard to ship tactical groups and coastal and air force components. This will allow for testing the advanced naval command headquarters’ capability of managing forces and operations to meet NATO standards, he said.

Every year, we complicate the exercise program. It’s like in sport. After so many years of cooperation and practice, we are ready for a “free game”. We will work out various scenarios , – said the head of the Sea Breeze-2017 from the American side, Navy Captain Tate Westbrook, the commander of U.S. 6th Fleet’s Task Force 65 and of the U.S. forces on scene.

Under the scenario, as explained by Captain Westbrook, the fleet of surfaces ships will conduct anti submarine warfare, try to find and neutralise the enemy submarine, the role played by the Turkish submarine TCG Batıray.

Well good luck to the ships in their effort against TCG Batıray.  This exercise shows  Turkey as the only NATO nation that can deploy submarines to the Black Sea. Romania has one Kilo class submarine on its naval register but no one has seen that boat deployed and Bulgaria disband its submarine force in 2013.

Here is the list of the participants as far as I could find:

Number Name Type Nationality
S-343 TCG Batıray Submarine Turkey
NL-124 TCG Karamürselbey Landing ship Turkey
F-241 TCG Turgutreis Frigate Turkey
CG-66 USS Hue City Cruiser USA
DDG-64 USS Carney Destroyer USA
265 ROS Contraamiral Horia Macellariu Corvette Romania
111 Maresesti Frigate Romania
U-130 Hetman Sahaidachny Frigate Ukraine
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